sábado, 1 de abril de 2017

When and where to watch birds in Catalunya

Cover with the stunning Lammergeier photo from Oriol Muntané

Published in early April 2017, When and Where to Watch Birds in Catalunya is the new book from Tundra Ediciones, the Spanish leading nature related books publisher. Written by this blog and Rare Birds in Spain website author, Ricard Gutiérrez, the book is foreworded by GONHS' Gibraltar Bird report editor Dr. Ernest F J Garcia.

Here we'll deal with a complete review of its contents aimed to perhaps encourage you to order one copy of this 378 pages long brand new guide to perhaps one of the best birding places in SW Europe.

Did you know that 443 bird species have been seen in Catalunya and that their number changes every month? Did you know that Catalunya holds the current European record of most birds seen in 24 hours, well exceeding 210 species? Can you imagine waking up in the snow-covered Pyrenees with Tengmalm’s Owl, Citril Finch or Lammergeier, visiting the open grassland at midday with Little Bustard, a diversity of larks, both Sandgrouse, Black Wheatear or Montagu’s Harrier, then ending the day on the Mediterranean coast with Greater Flamingo, Audouin’s and Slender-billed Gulls or offshore shearwaters? This is only possible in Catalunya. And this is the book to have if you want to enjoy the bird diversity of this rich country on a monthly basis.

If you are a resident planning a weekend trip that particular month or a visitor in search of anything to look for during your holiday, the book gives advice on different places and ideas and tips for mountain, Mediterranean and coastal habitats and sites.  The full Catalunya bird list is quoted in the book, with special attention to the must-see specialities and scarce birds month by month.

The book includes:
  • References to all bird species recorded in Catalunya 
  • 24 maps with suggested itineraries, including details of 22 observation towers, 31 hides, 92 viewing points or stakeouts and 149 suggested birdwatching areas. 
  • QR codes to be scanned with your mobile phone giving access to websites, downloadable documents or mobile apps. 
  • Many internet links to further resources linked with book contents 
  • A list of 187 specific locations underlined in the book with GPS directions covering all Catalunya comarcas.
  • A complete list of other resources for preparing your visits 
  • The updated Catalunya bird list 
  • A comarca-based appendix with further useful resources and information, downloadable maps and QR links, bird-richness maps and site lists. 
  • Current big-year records for every category in Catalunya. 

The text above is that of the back cover of the book. One of its aims is to give ideas for birdwatchers, allowing them to plan future trips depending on the time of the year and to encourage the old-fashioned way of ‘looking for birds’ rather than ‘waiting for others to find them’ so I can twitch them.

The book contains proposals both for the average birder but also for the keen aficionado in search of the rare or more interesting species. Guidelines are given for both so everyone can take advantage of any weekend visit, business trip, or holiday period regardless of whether it’s summer, winter, spring or autumn. 

Index of contents showing the book structure

The book is divided into four parts

  • The initial part includes an introduction and ensuing chapters (pages 1 to 36).
  • The second part is the main core of the book, dealing with each of the twelve months of the year in turn (pages 37 to 270).
  • A third section including external resources and acknowledgements (pages 271 to 278).
  • A final set of appendixes covering the Catalan bird list, the list of locations mentioned along the book and a set of files including useful information organized on a comarca basis. A species index (with both scientific and English names) is included too (pages 279 to 378). 

The book is plenty of graphs, photos, maps and QR codes all from the author. Besides, Xavier Riera provided a stunning Wallcreeper photo (see below) and Oriol Muntané four more images including the Lammergeier cover. Both authors kindly provided them for the book.

The 187 georeferenced locations cover all Catalunya comarcas and are of six main habitat types, each one featured with a colour dot. The 24 main routes have an additional red square and are coloured within the text with its habitat colour (e.g. orange for drylands).

Catalunya has a great variety of reliefs but it is basically a mountainous country located in NE Iberian Peninsula. There are the Pyrenees in the north. A number of coastal mountain ranges run north-south, some close to the sea, others a bit inland. The coast is rocky in the north (the so-called Costa Brava) and becomes sandy towards the centre and the south. And there are coastal wetlands at each end and in the middle: north to south the Aiguamolls de l’Empordà, Llobregat delta and the large Ebre delta. To complete the panorama, the central depression lies well inland, phasing in with the Ebro river basin expanding into Aragón and beyond. This essentially flat area does not contact with the main Pyrenean axis but with chalk, raptor-rich Mediterranean mountain ranges constituting the Pre-Pyrenees.

There is a huge scope for birds in an almost 32.000 km2 area that allows you to start the day watching the sun rise over the snow clad peaks of the Pyrenees while listening to the Tengmalm’s Owl and end up in the Mediterranean deltas watching shearwaters from the coast. With a good communications network, a wide-ranging, internet-driven source of information and the network of protected areas, it’s an ideal destination for those seeking rare species in the Iberian context, for those who come to the Peninsula from the north and for those who live here, all of this thanks to the extraordinary variety of habitats and species.

Montagu's Harrier Circus pygargus photo featured in April chapter (Ricard Gutiérrez)

How many birds can we find in Catalunya?

443 species from 74 families have been recorded in Catalunya so far.

Many of the 443 species are common elsewhere in Europe; others may be either endemic to southern Europe or typically considered as a coveted species for visitors from other climes. We have selected a set of 100 species amongst the total which might be the main targets for visitors from abroad. Emphasised with a bold number in Appendix 1, they range from endemic forms such as Iberian Green Woodpecker or Witherby’s Reed Bunting to southern European specialities such as Red-necked Nightjar, Thekla Lark, Roller, Little Bustard, Lammergeier or Audouin’s Gull.

November opening, with the © Xavier Riera Wallcreeper photo taken in one of the sites of the book and the introduction of the month. A similar scheme is at the beginning of each one of the twelve months

Catalunya month by month

Every month chapter includes in turn a global introduction (see an example above) to what the month represents from the birdwatching point of view. After this, a set of proposals are detailed in two different sections:

       General birding tips, includes regular events such as the arrival or departure of certain migrants. References to species and when and where to see them are detailed but also some suggestions to specific sites throughout Catalunya. Those places, underlined in the text and detailed with GPS coordinates in appendix 2, can also be visited in any other part of the year, but the proposed dates coincide with some particular event or period such as migration, breeding season etc.

       Tips for keen birders and rarity aficionados, including detailed information on the scarcer species likeliest to turn up that month. Almost regular, albeit scarce, birds are included and some histograms, charts and maps are provided too. A list of the top rarities found every month is also included, and a ‘rarity’ forecast involving the most likely future additionsto the Catalan list to whet the appetite of the most inveterate twitcher.

All bird species included in the main text are highlighted in italic bold letters to make them stand out.

Text is established on a monthly basis trying to point out the best season to visit the featured sites. However these may be frequented along the whole year. Some habitat photos and external links are included
Pages 120-121 covering part of the Pyrenees species and providing links to further resources from Nature Parks in the area. Georeferenced locations are underlined and species are in bold italics
An example of a chart showing the migration patterns of Little and Baillon's Crakes (Porzana parva, P.pusilla)

The keen birders part contains more detailed information on rarities occurrence and migration patterns of some sought-after species. In this case Pallid Harrier charts and histograms showing the best moment to attempt watching them. There is a complete list of rarities seen in Catalonia every month and a final paragraph on possible list additions. Perhaps you may add one of those species to the main text of future editions!

You will find references to locations or place names throughout the book. The commoner ones, such as town or large sierras names, can be found in maps or the internet. A set of more specific places appear underlined and are included in appendix 2, showing both their native Catalan name and, wherever applicable, their English meaning. Appendix 2 includes 187 places, with details on the town council they belong to, comarca, province and UTM datum ETRS89 GPS coordinates.

The book also includes references to internet resources, either webpages or documents. Some of these external links are accessible through a QR Code that can be scanned from your handheld, either smartphone or tablet.

The book is designed to awaken curiosity and to be useful for a wide range of visitors to Catalunya that may have a different degree of interest in nature
and birds.

An example of the first two pages of an itinerary. In this case, being a coastal wetland, the background colour (same in the Catalunya locations map above) is violet meaning brackish wetlands. All maps are original for this book and containing a set of pictograms indicating facilities or suggested birdwatching points. Details on access (by car, bus or train), timing and main target species are included too.

The book includes 24 itineraries with site maps covering locations of interest for our remit here. All maps have been specially drawn up for this book by the author on the basis of the official maps from the Catalan Cartographic and Geological Institute (http://www.icc.es).
The 144.53 km long routes are dotted in the maps with different colours according to access type and path characteristics. Other maps of the different comarcas or tourist points of interest are linked in Appendix 3 including QR codes for tablets or smartphones too.

The routes have different coloured dots according to its nature, either driveable tracks (paved or not) or walking sections. Besides, pictograms indicate suggested stops. This map key is in the back sleeve of the cover so you can use it along the whole book. 

The book also includes in appendix 1 the Catalan bird list with English, latin, Spanish and Catalan names provided. The Catalan bird list includes 74 families and 443 species. It also includes 10 further subspecies which are diagnosable in the field. Each species has been
classified in a category: A, B or C, according to the recent categorisation
included in the 2012 Spanish list.

A part of the Catalan list included in appendix 1


Appendix 2 lists the 187 specific locations mentioned in the book’s main text, where they appear underlined. For every location its name, as it appears in the book, is given. This name almost always coincides with the official ICGC nomenclature, which you can find on its online map viewer (see resources chapter, http://www.icc.cat/vissir3/). Also shown are the
municipality, comarca, province (Barcelona, Girona, Lleida or Tarragona) and geographical x,y coordinates in UTM (Universal Transverse Mercator), datum ETRS89. A further column shows the month(s) chapter(s) in which the area is mentioned (Roman numerals). 

Appendix 3 contains a fact file with data of interest to the visitor to Catalunya for every one of the 42 Catalan comarcas, including the recently established Moianès. As stated in chapter one, the comarca is Catalunya’s sub-provincial administrative division, in turn divided into municipalities. It is almost a book within the book with plenty of background information and further resources to explore. 

The files for Baix Ebre and Baix Empordà comarcas.

Besides surface, administrative capital, link to tourist board website and protected surface, details on transportation are thoroughly provided. Besides sites mentioned in the book and chapter where they are, main tourist attractions are also listed together with a list of the protected areas if any and the kind of habitat you may expect.

A diagram showing the main landscape units (forest, scrubs, cultivated land...) is followed by a map showing the bird richness in summer and winter according to breeding atlases projects. Number of taxa recorded and summary of main birding interest together with downloadable protected area maps if available completes what's aimed to be an useful reference file given you plan to visit or stay within a single comarca or nearby.

As the final paragraph of the foreword from Dr. Ernest F J Garcia states, I look forward you enjoy this book and hopefully see you sometime birdwatching in Catalunya.

This is actually rather an unusual book. It departs from the site-by-site format of ‘traditional’ guides and instead considers Catalunya month-by-month. Moreover, it provides guidance in turn for those whose interest in birds and wildlife is quite general or who are beginners and then attempts to satisfy the more hard-core birders (always an ambitious assignment) by providing pointers to sought-after target species and opportunities for rarity-finding. The sites themselves do get full treatment both within the main text and within the Appendices. It is difficult to imagine any potentially useful detail that has been omitted. This Guide therefore more than amply fulfils its aims and will be invaluable to anyone who visits Catalunya or aims to spend some longer time there. I heartily recommend it to you. 

Dr. Ernest FJ Garcia (left) and Ricard Gutiérrez (right) in the last British BirdFair 2016 (this photo is not included in the book).

sábado, 14 de enero de 2017

Steppe Shrike, rarest of the rare 2016 [Alcaudón estepario, el más raro de los raros 2016]

Después de una reñida votación con el negrón aliblanco asiático de Alicante, finalmente el alcaudón estepario Lanius (meridionalis) pallidirostris, primero para España, visto en Almería a finales de 2016, y que sigue en enero de 2017, ha sido votado por el 38% de los participantes en el concurso anual 'el más raro de los raros' como la rareza anual de 2016. 

Los 102 votos emitidos estas navidades y primeros dias de enero han optado mayoritariamente por este alcaudón (en 2015 también ganó un alcaudón, esta vez el pardo). Segundo en el concurso ha quedado a corta distancia (31% de los votos) el Melanitta (deglandi) stejnegeri de Alicante, una rareza excepcional del Pacífico. En tercer lugar otra no menos rareza, vista por un solo observador, la Porzana marginalis de Córdoba en enero que se ha llevado el 19% de los votos. Tres candidatos han quedado sin un solo apoyo aunque en su día atrajeron en un par de casos buen número de observadores. Pero siempre hay un más raro de los raros. 

Un año más, felicidades a todo el mundo y gracias por participar en este concurso único y original de rarebirdspain. Hasta final de año con el más raro de los raros 2017! 


After a rather disputed votation, face to face with the Asian White-winged Scoter, the Steppe Shrike from Almería (still present in early 2017) has won the Rarest of the Rare 2016 award. A 38% of the voters gave supported the shrike (another shrike, a Brown, was the rarest of 2015!).

The 102 voting people have declared the Steppe Shrike as the rarest species seen in Spain during 2016. Second in the poll has been the Alicante's Asian White-winged Scoter, also a must-see and top rarity (31% of the votes) while the 3rd is a no less rare bird in the WP: the Striped Crake seen in Córdoba in January 2016 (19% of the votes). Three contestants have obtained zero votes despite they attracted many twitchers in some cases.

Once more, congrats everybody and see you next end of the year with the original and unique rarebirdspain's Rarest of the Rare contest!

viernes, 23 de diciembre de 2016

Rarest of the rare 2016 [El más raro de los raros 2016]

Rarest of the rare 2016 [El más raro de los raros 2016]

Castellano: mirad más abajo

Rarest of the rare contest is back again! In its 7th year edition, you'll find enclosed below a selection of of perhaps the rarest sightings obtained in the country during 2016 chosen by the webmaster of Rarebirdspain.net according to scarcity or singularity of the records.

This year, Rare Birds in Spain, in its 16 year-in-a-row online period has published until 21th December 2016 news on 1237 rarities and near-rarities (532 RC 2016 criteria rarities and 705 up to 2015 rarities, the ‘near rarities’, 933 of both in 2015).

The web has published 608 large images (720 pixels wide) original photos (501 in 2015), 14 videos (8 in 2015) and 362 (368 in 2015) small sized (thumbnails) supporting photos kindly sent by the authors. There have been 6 maps too and 8 Gibraltar sightings as well. It therefore has not been easy to choose a selection of the rarest birds recorded amongst those 1237 records and 984 media received, but once again the rarest of the rare is below and it's up to you choose which sighting and species will be.

Please vote the poll (right side of the blog) to see which species sighting can be considered the rarest of the rare 2016!. As in previous editions, winner will be included in the website gif banner in due course. You can choose several choices, not only one, we suggest three is a good number. If interested in the different sightings, follow the links to the original report of the species in the Rare Birds in Spain website.

Every year, the selected species are impressive, and this edition is no exception. They reflect the interest of our area for birds and birdwatching as well as the work of all the observers, not only finding the species but also recording them carefully for the future.

Happy rarest of the rare 2016 and a better 2017 year!

Number of rarity and near-rarity records per month @ rarebirdspain.net 2016 [Número de rarezas y casi rarezas registradas en la web rarebirdspain por mes durante 2016]

Number of photos (dark blue), thumbnails (medium blue) and videos (pale blue) plus maps (violet) featured in rarebirdspain.net 2016 on a monthly basis [Número de fotos (azul oscuro), minuaturas (azul claro), videos (azul pálido) y mapas (violeta) publicadas en la web rarebirdspain por mes durante 2016]

* * * 

Ya está aquí el concurso 'El más raro de los raros' otra vez! En su 7º edición anual, se presenta una selección de tal vez las citas más raras que se han obtenido en España durante 2016, escogidos por el webmaster de Rarebirdspain.net de acuerdo con la escasez o singularidad de las citas. Había más, algunas sin imágenes, pero éstas bien pueden representar el conjunto de citas más raras recogidas.

Este año, Rare Birds in Spain, en su 16º año consecutivo online, ha publicado hasta el 21 de Diciembre de 2016 novedades de 1237 rarezas y casi rarezas (532 rarezas de acuerdo con los criterios del Comité de Rarezas para 2016 y 705 especies que eran rarezas hasta el 31.12.2015, las 'casi-rarezas'. En comparación a las 1237 citas, en 2015 se citaron 933 en la web.

La web ha publicado 608 imágenes originales grandes (720 pixels de ancho, 501 en 2015), 14 videos (8 en 2015) y 362 (368 en 2015) fotos pequeñas (thumbnails) amablemente enviadas por sus autores. También han habido seis mapas y 8 citas de Gibraltar. Ha sido, por tanto, difícil escoger una selección de las aves más raras observadas entre estas 1237 citas y 984 archivos multimedia recibidos, pero una vez más, el más raro de los raros está más abajo y queda a vuestro criterio decidir cual de estas especies será. 

Votad por favor la encuesta (en la columna derecha del blog) para ver cual será la especie más rara de 2016 en España. Como en ediciones previas, el ganador será incluido en el banner de la web en cuanto sea posible. Se pueden escoger diversas opciones, no solo una, y suponemos tres como número más adecuado. Si estáis interesados en las diferentes citas, seguid los enlaces a las citas originales en sus respectivos meses de 2016 o páginas especiales en la web Rare Birds in Spain. 

Cada año la selección de especies es impresioante y este año no es ninguna excepción. Estas especies reflejan el interés de nuestra área para las aves y el birdwatching así como el trabajo de los observadores, o solo encontrando las especies, sino también obteniendo evidencias sobre su presencia para futura referencia. 

Feliz más raro de los raros 2016 y un mejor año 2017! 

* * * 

  1.  C01. Porzana marginalis
  2.  C02. Turdus obscurus
  3.  C03. Tringa solitaria
  4.  C04. Larus thayeri
  5.  C05. Gyps africanus
  6.  C06. Charadrius leschenaultii
  7.  C07. Sula sula
  8.  C08. Stercorarius maccormickii 
  9.  C09. Fregetta tropica
  10.  C10. Pelecanus crispus
  11.  C11. Aquila nipalensis
  12.  C12. Lanius (meridionalis) pallidirostris 
  13.  C13. Alaemon alaudipes 
  14.  C14. Anthus godlewskii 
  15.  C15. Melanitta (deglandi) stejnegeri  

  • Candidate C01 Porzana marginalis (Córdoba, January)

Photo: © Diego Peinazo 13.1.2016
A single day record at Lago Azul, Córdoba, on 13.1 (Diego Peinazo), not relocated despite search, which was the 2nd for Spain after a record in 2010. See a video too in the January 2016 page. A 2nd for Spain, as briefly seen as the first, but certainly granting a place in this list.

  • Candidate C02 Turdus obscurus (Castelló, January; Gipuzkoa, November)

1ST-2ND FOR SPAIN, both shot by hunters

Photo: © Alfonso González 17.1.2016

The 1st for Spain was a bird shot at Rossell, Castelló, on 17.1  (see January 2016 page for more images) while the 2nd for Spain was found also shot by a hunter at PN Pagoeta, Gipuzkoa on 12.11 (see November 2016 page for more information). A first and second, sadly hunted but granting a mention in this list.

  •  Candidate C03 Tringa solitaria (Almería, February-March)


Photo: © Andrew M.Allport 4.2.2016

The bird found on 4.2 at Cuevas de Almanzora, Almería (Andrew Allport) and widely twitched and photographed along the month and present at least until late March. See many photos and two videos in the February 2016 page and another shot in the March 2016 page. Best ever seen Solitary Sandpiper in Spain granting for a nomination in this list.

  • Candidate C04 Larus thayeri (Lugo, March-April)

1ST FOR SPAIN, returning individual

Photo: © Toño Salazar 19.3.2016

From 19.3-1.4.2016, at least, the returning adult locally named ‘Ciprana’ was seen again at Lago, Xove, Lugo (Toño Salazar and many other authors). See more photos in the March 2016 page. A 1st for Spain returning bird granting for a nomination in this list.

  • Candidate C05 Gyps africanus (Huesca, June)

Photo: © Juan Carlos Albero 17.6.2016

On 17.6 a bird was seen and photographed at Pre-Pyrenees at El Pont de Montanyana, Huesca (Juan Carlos Albero Perez). See more photos in the June 2016 page. It was seen alongside all the rest of European vultures, excluding Ruppells (!) and it is the northernmost record to date of the species in Spain and Europe a fact granting an entrey in this list.

  • Candidate C06 Charadrius leschenaultii (Cantabria, July-August)

Photo: © Jesús Menéndez 31.7.2016 

A bird was found on 31.7 at Santoña, Cantabria and stayed into the 1st of August (Iván Sarabia; Jesús Menéndez et al). First image is in July 2016 page and there are more in the August page here. It appeared to be the same individual seen some days before in Ireland. Find the links to the story in the August page. A stunning bird and fascinating story also worth being included in the rarest of the rare 2016 selection.
  • Candidate C07 Sula sula
Photo: © Chloé Yzoard 4.8.2016
Chloe Yzoard sawn this nearly adult, the 4th for Spain, on 4.8 2 nautic miles off Puerto Colón, Tenerife. The record was included in the August 2016 page and granted a special photopage in the website too. Three out of four Spanish records of the species have been in the Canaries, the other in the Mediterranean. Nice finding, also one of the rarest of 2016.

  • Candidate C08 Stercorarius maccormickii 
Photo: © Víctor París 8.9.2016

This candidature gathers the three observations of the species in 2016:
  1. A Coruña. One was seen from Estaca de Bares, Mañón, A Coruña on 28.8 (A.Sandoval, A.Martínez Pernas and others).
  2. A Coruña. One bird was seen from a kayac and fortunately photographed on 8.9 off Estaca de Bares, A Coruña (Víctor Paris).  
  3. La Palma. One was on 1.10 off Tazacorte, La Palma, Canary Islands (David Castro @ Birds of the Canary Islands Facebook), photo in the October 2016 page.  
With only one accepted record (2013) for mainland Spain off Lugo and another from the Canaries, the better understanding of the migration of the species and its key ID features will perhaps bring more data. These stunning photos taken off A Coruña and the overall three records in 2016 grant for their inclusion, as a whole, in this rarest of the rare 2016 list.

  • Candidate C09 Fregetta tropica

Photo: © Juan Sagardía 4.9.2016

Again the work of Lanzarote Pelagics and their seawatches off the Canary islands produce impressive sightings such as this 3rd for Spain, this time in September 2016, the two previous also obtained by the same team, in this case Marcel Gil, Juan Sagardia, M.Gerber, M.M.Schuck, U.Senft/ Lanzarote Pelagics. A blocker and much desired species for any WP seawatcher, a definitely rarest of the rare in 2016.
  • Candidate C10 Pelecanus crispus

Photo: © José Ramón Otamendi 6.10.2016
On 6.10 a bird reached Txingudi, Irún, Gipuzkoa (José Ramón Otamendi). Interestingly, presumably the same bird was relocated at Alcañiz, Teruel on 5.11 (Sine and Clive Balch, Esther Yera & Juan Muñoz) where it stayed only up to 6.11 to dissappear again. An unknown origin species that may turn into the 1st of its kind in the Spanish list. Anyway one of the rarest of the rare 2016.
  • Candidate C11 Aquila nipalensis

Photo: © Javi Elorriaga / Birding the Strait 17.10.2016

After having seen an escaped bird in October, the above bird was found at La Janda on 17.10 by the Birding the Strait team (Javi Elorriaga, Mike Bowser). The indidivual was seen intermitently at least until mid November. A rarest of the rare in 2016.

  • Candidate C12 Lanius (meridionalis) pallidirostris 

Photo: © Jesús Nieto 30.11.2016

This pale shrike was found on 30.11 and remained into December at Andarax river mouth, Almería (Jesús Nieto Latorre). Many authors had the opportunity of watching it. A form probably becoming a full species in the near future and, in any case, an addition to the Spanish list. See photos in this special id page.

  • Candidate C13 Alaemon alaudipes 


Photo: © Francisco Javier García Vargas 6.11.2016

The four previous records of Hoopoe Lark come from the Canary Islands (3) and Chafarinas (1), last being in 2007 but none so well documented as this one. A long waited twitchtable bird that lasted in Lanzarote from 5-12.11 (Julio Rodríguez et al). See a photopage here.
  • Candidate C14 Anthus godlewskii 

Photo: © D. González, 11.11.2016

Two records were obtained in A Coruña in November 2016:
1) A Coruña. A bird, the 2nd for Spain, was found on 4.11 at Touriñán cape, A Coruña (Daniel López Velasco, Fernando Pereiras, Roberto Menéndez). Not relocated.
2) A Coruña. Another bird was found at A Coruña, this time at Torre de Hércules, downtown A Coruña. On 11.11 one lasrge pipit first told by a Richard's was photographed (D.González). Once photos were published, the bird was identified as a Blyth's, the 3rd for Spain (Joachim Pintens, Joachim Bertrands and Daniel López-Velasco).

Will be these records the path for future findings. So far, another rarest of the rare candidate.

  • Candidate C15 Melanitta (deglandi) stejnegeri 
Photo: Jana Marco © 14.12.2016

This stunning male was presumably expected to be in Japan in December. Instead it spent some days in the Alicante coast, attracting many twitchers even from abroad. A special photopage was built to celebrate this 2nd for Spain, another rarest of the rare 2016.